Four Color Theorem and Pixels

In 1976 the Four Color Theorem was proved by Appel and Haken, with the assistance of computers to go through the large quantity of special cases. Most experts consider it proved. There had been some controversy regarding whether this constitutes a true proof if no human expert or team of experts in the field can possibly work through the proof themselves. According to the Wikipedia article on this theorem there have been independent proofs, and all require a computer to aid the human expert. It is intriguing to imagine that there may be simpler proofs of any theorem.  Here is my proposal for a way forward to a simpler proof of the Four Color Theorem. Read more…